In the eastern part of Canada, the Saint Lawrence River flows into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence . The Gulf of Saint Lawrence is the world's largest estuary , containing the island of Newfoundland. South of the Gulf, the northernmost tip of the Appalachian Mountains poke their heads out of the sea, forming the province of Nova Scotia.
Between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick lies the Bay of Fundy-where the tides rise and fall up to five times as far as average ocean tides.
Little hills tumble far across the country, sweeping south of the great Hudson Bay. West of Ontario they smooth out into the broad, flat Canadian Prairie provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
Finally, the tall and jagged Canadian Rockies, dotted with enormous glaciers, break the landscape. On the other side, BC nestles next to the sea with its own diverse ecosystems ranging from rainforest to fjord.
As one moves north towards the arctic, the vegetation changes from coniferous forest, to tundra, to the barrens of the far north. The "third coast" is ringed with a vast archipelago that contains some of the world's biggest islands.
Getting to Canada is easy by car from the United States, or by plane from anywhere. The US highway system leads into Canada at thirteen points along the border. The busiest entry points are at Detroit, Windsor, and Niagara Falls. One can also enter Canada from the US by bus, train, or ferry. Many of the rules regarding necessary identification have recently changed. It is best to have a passport when visiting Canada, even when entering from the US by land. The Canadian dollar, or "loonie", is roughly on par with the US dollar these days. It's always best to check exchange rates before travelling.